Small metal non-ferrous mine design principles

[REVIEW] mine beneficiation plant is one of the most important aspects of the production of white spoon. The design of the ore dressing must implement the party's line and relevant policies and policies, and proceed according to the overall plan for mine construction.

The ore dressing plant is one of the most important aspects of mine production. The design of the ore dressing must implement the party's line and relevant policies and policies, and proceed according to the overall plan for mine construction.

Generally, priority should be given to mining high grade, good ore selectivity, convenient transportation, good power supply and water supply conditions, and a small amount of underground construction. In doing so, the investment is small, the speed is fast, and it is beneficial to exert the investment effect as soon as possible. The order of mine construction should be to first go to mining and then build a concentrating plant. The construction progress of the two must be connected and the production capacity should be formed at the same time.

First, the determination of the scale of the beneficiation plant

The scale of the ore dressing should be determined according to the design task book issued by the competent authority. When formulating the design task book to determine the scale of the concentrator, the following questions should be considered:

(1) According to the needs of the country, the occurrence of geological resources and deposits, the conditions for the construction of the concentrator, and the technical feasibility and economic rationality to determine the scale of the concentrator.

(2) It is imperative to conscientiously implement the general line of “taking the enthusiasm, striving for the upper reaches, and building the socialism more quickly and economically”. Carrying forward the revolutionary spirit of "self-reliance and hard work" can generally be completed once to reach the design scale, and can also be constructed in stages according to the investment, equipment supply, etc., and gradually reach the design scale.

(3) When determining the scale of the ore dressing plant, it is necessary to consider the reasonable service life under the condition that the mining mining technical conditions permit. The service life of the concentrator is calculated according to the industrial reserves of the b+c1 grade deposit, and the c2 grade reserves are generally used for the construction of the long-term planning.

Small non-ferrous metal processing plant white spoon years of service should be generally about a decade. However, the service life of the metal that is urgently needed by the country, or the mine that needs to be accelerated for special reasons, and some simple small non-ferrous metal concentrators can be shortened appropriately.

For mining mines that are side-by-side, it is necessary to control the amount of mines that have been developed for three to five years. This exploitation can be used as a basis for determining the scale of the ore dressing plant.

Second, the working system of the mineral processing plant

The working system of the concentrator is generally a continuous working system throughout the year. The operating rate of equipment in each section shall be determined according to the external transportation, power supply, spare parts supply, maintenance equipment level and section nature.

The metallurgical system of the small non-ferrous metal concentrator requires two working days of 330 days and 306 days per year. According to the current production situation of small concentrating plants, it is more appropriate to use the 306-day continuous working system. If the diesel power station is built, the annual working days can be appropriately reduced. The annual operating rate of the equipment can be selected by referring to the following table. Third, the beneficiation test

The determination of the mineral processing process should generally be carried out according to the test report submitted by the experimental research unit or with reference to the production practice data of a similar concentrator.

1. The beneficiation sample must have a certain representativeness. The technical requirements are jointly proposed by the design, experimental research unit and the geological department.

2, the scale of the test, the most important is determined by the complexity of the nature of the ore, the use of the process and the scale of production of the proposed concentrator. Generally, there should be small closed-circuit test data of the laboratory. For simple and easy-to-select ore, there are laboratory test data or similar production practices of similar concentrators. For complex and difficult to choose multi-species ore, there should be continuous test data.

3, the content and depth of the beneficiation test must meet the needs of the design, which should pay special attention to the comprehensive utilization and "three wastes" treatment.

Fourth, the site selection

The choice of site is a policy-oriented, multi-considering factor and more complicated work. Unfair consideration should be given to the rational conditions of raw ore and product transportation, power supply, water supply, tailings transportation and storage, engineering geological conditions, earthwork volume and construction construction; and the impact on agriculture should also be considered. Proper selection of the site is an important factor in ensuring long-term rational production of the mine. The factory vanadium should be based on in-depth and meticulous investigation and research work, comprehensive consideration of various factors, and comprehensive technical and economic comparison of multiple programs. In the specific work, the following factors should generally be considered:

1. Selecting the site must conscientiously implement the policy of “based on agriculture”. It is necessary to pay attention to saving land, not occupying fertile land, occupying less land, not impeding the construction of farmland water conservancy, and combining construction and land production to support agriculture under possible conditions.

2. To make full use of natural topography, make full use of the slope of 20°-25°, and build a factory with good engineering geological conditions, reduce the amount of earth and stone works, and realize the self-flow or semi-self-flow of pulp and tailings.

3. The site of the ore dressing plant. For the flotation plant, it should generally be close to the most important pit or wellhead of the mine to reduce the cost of the original ore transportation. However, for the re-election plant, due to the large water consumption and high water supply cost, the site is close to the water source; however, when the mine is far away from the water source, it is necessary to make a comprehensive technical and economic comparison of the original ore transportation and water supply.

4. When selecting the site of the ore dressing plant, pay special attention to the choice of the tailings pond. The tailings yield of small non-ferrous metal concentrators generally accounts for 80-98% of the original ore. Therefore, regarding the transportation and stacking of tailings, it plays an important role in site selection. For the tungsten ore plant, it is also necessary to consider the site where the waste rock is piled up. The amount of waste rock is generally half that of the original ore. The waste rock pile should be placed in the ditch valley near the concentrator as much as possible to reduce transportation costs.

5. The site of the ore dressing plant should not be placed above the ore body and below the flood level, nor should it be placed within the collapse limit and the blasting danger zone. And should pay attention to avoid the bad engineering geological conditions (such as faults, landslides, caves and possible collapse).

6. According to the resources of the mine, when selecting the site of the ore dressing plant, it is necessary to consider the appropriate development space.

5. Tailings facilities

Tailings facilities are an important part of mine production and have a significant relationship with residents' safety and agricultural production. Therefore, in design (construction and production), it must be given great attention. The concentrator design must have a necessary and reliable tailings treatment facility, and a tailings storage should be provided. When designing tailings, the following factors must be considered:

1. The area of ​​the tailings pond should be as small as possible, but it must have enough storage volume. The most favorable terrain for the construction of the tailings pond is the valley and the depression, and the amount of dam construction and flood discharge is required to be small, and the storage capacity is large. The total volume of the small concentrator is best to meet the needs of the concentrator to discharge all of the tailings within the design service life.

2. The setting of the tailings pond should not affect the safety of mines, cities and residential areas; it will not affect the environmental sanitation, pollute the rivers and not harm the production of agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery; ensure that the tailings drainage can be clarified to the maximum extent and The harmful ingredients contained in the package do not exceed the national standards.

3, the tailings pond should be set as far as possible below the concentrating plant, in order to use the self-flow method to transport the tailings, which will reduce operating costs.

The hydraulic conveying of tailings should use the open channel as much as possible. When it is necessary to use a combination of pressure and self-flow, the length of the self-flow part should be extended as much as possible to reduce the number of sand pump sections.

4. The initial dam of the tailings pond should be at a height of 1.5 meters on the basis of the height required to ensure the distance between the clarified water and the flood control volume during the flood period. The initial dam height should be able to store the volume of tailings for not less than half a year, and try to use the tailings dam.

6. External water supply, power supply, transportation

The concentrator should have a reliable water supply source and necessary water supply facilities to ensure production and domestic water, and choose water sources to avoid water competition with agriculture. Where water is scarce, consideration should be given to using backwater or pit water. When the flotation plant uses backwater or pit water, it needs to be tested to determine the rationality of the use.

The conveying system of the water supply of the ore dressing should be as free as possible. When it is not possible to self-flow, segmental low pressure and single tube delivery should generally be used. However, there should be a storage tank with a sufficient volume, the volume of which is generally 6-10 hours (considering the accident storage volume) (the re-election plant 2-4 hours).

The power of the concentrator should be used preferentially by the power grid. When the external power supply is not easy, consider building the power plant.

When constructing a power plant, we should try our best to build a hydropower station or a thermal power station. When the coal and water supply is not easy and the load is not large, the diesel power station can be built. The power plant should have more than 50% spare capacity.

The concentrator uses a reliable transportation system and corresponding transportation capabilities.

The external transportation mode should be determined after technical and economic comparison based on factors such as transportation volume, transportation distance, service life and construction conditions.

The small non-ferrous metal ore dressing plant has a small amount of transportation, and the service life is not long. There are water transportation conditions, and water transportation is used as much as possible. For those who do not use water, the road transportation is generally used. The standard and technical conditions of the road shall be implemented in accordance with the standards set by the state.

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